Reckoning of the Years
First was the Days before Days ( From V.Y. 0 - 3500 )
Then the Years of the Trees ( From V.Y.3500 - 5000 ) In text marked as V.Y.t ( example : V.Y.t : 1000 = V.Y.3600 )
Last comes the days of the Sun and Moon ( V.Y.5000 = Sun-year 0 ).
Time began with the beginning of Eä but the measurement which the Valar made of ages of there labours is not certainly known to any of the children of Iluvatar, until the first flowering of Telperion in Valinor. There-after the Valar counted time by the ages of Valinor. But the supposition of the loremasters of the Elves concerning the time before Years of the Trees which are The Days before days.: its computed that the Valar came to the realm of Arda 5000 Valian years before the first rising of the Moon. Still it was after ages of labour beyond knowledge or reckoning in the great halls of Eä the Valar descended into Arda.
Valian Years.: There were 12 hours in 1 day of the Valar and 1000 days in a Valar year and 100 Valar years is 1 age of the Valar. This is 12.000 hours in 1 Valian-Year.
The Years of the Trees : 1 day of the Trees ( A full flowering of both Trees ) is 12 Valian-hours but 1 hour of the Trees are 7 times as long as 1 hour of the Sun so 1 day of the trees is 84 hours of the Sun and so 1 year of the Trees is 84 x 1000 days = 84000 Hours of the Sun.
1 year of the Sun are 24 x 365 +6 = 8766 hours ( The last 6 hours to count the leapyear.) One year of the Trees = 84000 % 8766 = 9,582 Years of the Sun
It is told in the Annals of Aman that 3500 Valian years had passed before the first flowering of the Trees and the Moon arose first time after 5000 Valian years. In years of the Sun as we know them 3500 x 9,582 = 33537 years had passed before the Trees and yet 1500 x 9,582 = 14373 more before the Moon. In all before the First Age, 47910 years was gone.
Of the calendars of reckoning of time in Middle-earth there were several, during time and in the different realms of Middle-earth. The Elves had theirs, the Humans and the Hobbits had each their own calendars too. But they all derived from the Elvish calendar.
Elvish reckoning of the years.
Related Links.: The Elvish Calendar.
The Elvish calendar were build upon one Yén which means one Full Year that again is equal to one Quantiën or one hundred human years which they called a Coranári. When the Elvish calendar arised and who invented it is unknown but it would be my guess they began counting time during the Long March towards the West.
In the LotR appendix D the account of the Calendars is, in my opinion, a cluttered and misleading piece of work full of errors. When trying to deal with it errors occur, it simply does not fit together at least what goes for the Elvish part of it and both the Human and Hobbits calendars derives from it. I am well aware Tolkien were under great stress and a space and time limit when finishing the appendixes. But in Pme a full, well rounded, clear and finished account of the calendar is present. I do know the appendix D derives from that account and the more I am surprised over the appendix. Please note I have, in the Calendars, used Italic for what found in LotR and normal text for the Pme account.
Númenorians reckoning of the years.
Related Links.: Númenorian Calendar / King`s reckoning. and Steward`s reckoning.
Before the Númenorians the Second born acquainted with the Elves, used the Elvish six days week. The Númenorians altered the Elvish Calendar to fit in with their wishes. They favored the number seven and added a day to the Elvish week. The Númenorians used the Coránari, a Full Sunround as their natural unit. This calendar were later used in Arnor and Gondor until the time of the Stewards and is therefor called King`s reckoning.
Against the above mentioned problems with the Elvish Calendar in appendix D in LotR the Númenorian Calendar same place seems to fit very well with the earlier account in Pme. I haven't discovered any real or crucial errors but only some extra additions, mainly words, in the appendix. Please note I have, in the Calendars, used Italic for what found in LotR and normal text for the Pme account.
Hobbits reckoning of the years.
The Hobbits in the Shire had their own calculation of the years. They began their calculations when the two brothers Marco and Cavallo crossed the Brandywine river in Third age 1600. This year became their year 1.
Please note I have, in the Calendars, used Italic for what found in LotR and normal text for the Pme account.
Related Links.: Hobbit`s reckoning.